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Now is the time to discuss a more general topic, namely the use of the internet in Indonesia in general.

Taking the data summarized from the research of APJII (Association of Indonesian Internet Service Providers) and PUSKAKOM UI on the ‘Indonesian Internet User Profile 2014’, here are five interesting facts about internet usage in Indonesia.

  1. The number of internet users is about 1/3 of the population

Until the end of 2014, the number of internet users in Indonesia reached 88.1 million. More than half of them live on the island of Java, to be precise, about 52 million users.

When compared with Indonesia’s population as a whole, which is around 252.4 million – last year’s version, of course – then the number of internet users in Indonesia is about 1/3 of the total population, 34.9% to be precise. This figure will, of course, continue to grow along with the expansion of the internet network and the growth of device users to surf in cyberspace in Indonesia.

Bonus: the ratio of users by gender is 51% female and 49%, male. In yesterday’s article, women were also proven to be more willing to shop online than men.

  1. The majority of internet users are people who are already working

Of the tens of millions of internet users in Indonesia, most of them are already working / self-employed. The number reached more than half (55%), followed by students and housewives with a percentage of 18% and 16%, respectively.

This fact is interesting because, if we look at social networks, teenagers seem to be quite dominating. However, in fact, internet access in Indonesia is limited to the use of social networks and the work environment.

  1. In the world of work, the internet is most often used in the trade sector


What are these workers and employers looking for when accessing the internet? Judging from the scope of the world of work, the majority of the internet in Indonesia is used in the trade sector (31.5%) and services (26.1%).

Looking at yesterday’s article about the rise of online buying and selling in Indonesia, this data seems quite accurate.

  1. Cell phones are most often used to access the internet for playing online gambling games

Mobile Betting

When talking about internet usage, the question that is often asked is, “through what device do users access it?” And the answer is also almost the same in every country, namely through cellphones.

In Indonesia alone, cellphones account for 85% of the total devices used to access the internet. However, one user usually also accesses the internet from other devices, so that a laptop/netbook takes up 32% of the share.

Cell phones to access the internet are evenly distributed throughout Indonesia, from west to east. One of the most popular applications used in cell phones is online gambling games. With the rising of the mentioned industry since 3 years ago, mobile online gambling becoming a trend with huge popularity. Many Agen Sbobet such YukBola sites, which is known for their trustworthiness in judi bola, began to spread their wing wider and approaching a bigger audience.

  1. Average access to the internet for 1 – 3 hours

The next question is, “how long do Indonesians access the internet every day?” If the question is how many times, the answer can be tens or hundreds because every time we open our smartphone lock screens to access the internet is counted once.

Now, for the length of access, if the duration of each use of our cellphones is accumulated, plus internet access via other devices, 37.7% of users access the internet for 1 – 3 hours every day. 23.3% access for 30-60 minutes, while 6.1% of users access the internet for more than 9 hours every day – I think they are the kings and queens of downloads with unlimited internet services.

They spend that long time playing the internet because they are so absorbed in playing online gambling. This is so inherent in the Indonesian people because gambling is their favorite thing while spending time having fun and getting benefits when winning the jackpot.


The internet is known to people worldwide as a system that can provide various human needs that can be obtained even with just a touch. All these experiences using the internet can be even more beautiful with the presence of 5G.

5G technology is now something that the Indonesian people are looking forward to. Its network offers high-speed internet speeds, up to 10 times faster than 4G networks.

The presence of 5G will also open up new opportunities and experiences for the business sector. Not to mention, this super-fast internet network can also be used for artificial intelligence technology such as driverless cars, robots to surveillance for security needs.

Not only for industrial products, but the 5G network will also improve the experience of using the internet on a daily basis. Here are the benefits of the 5G network that will be felt in human life.


Stream movies and videos without lag

One of the characteristics of 5G is that it has much faster data download and upload speeds than its predecessor. Automatically this will make internet usage activities not interrupted because the internet is stable.

Therefore, users can stream high-quality videos and movies like 4K or even 8K very smoothly, and there is no lag.

Low latency cloud gaming

The latency of the 5G internet network is very low compared to previous technologies. This refers to the time lag in data transmission from sender to receiver. So, the higher the lag time, the slower the recipient will receive the response.

5G network data speeds can reach 10 Gbps and have very low latency. This allows consumers to enjoy cloud gaming services.

Cloud gaming allows computer games, from PlayStation 4 to Xbox One, to be played directly in real-time on mobile devices such as smartphones. Therefore, this technology requires high and stable data connectivity speeds, as offered by the 5G mobile internet network.

Video call quality is smoother and clearer.

Just like streaming movies, communication via video calls is one of the most important needs today. Now, 4G LTE allows mobile users to make video calls or video calls on smartphones. However, with a 5G network, consumers can maximize the video calling experience.

Oppo is one of the smartphone manufacturers that has conducted trials to demonstrate video call capabilities on the 5G network. The device used is the Oppo Reno 5G smartphone that supports the X50 modem. The test results went well with a video call that lasted for approximately 3 minutes.

Connect with various IoT devices

5G technology can help improve the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) technology. This network can make every device smart and connected to the internet.

An example of IoT is how a robotic device can move thanks to being connected to the internet and carrying out its functions. If a cellphone supports the 5G network, the device will be able to connect to many devices at once.


The need for data is very important in the IT world, especially for companies or startups engaged in technology and digital. For this reason, it is necessary to have a container or a place to store various information and data in a large capacity. A new breakthrough has been created by utilizing an internet network called cloud computing to deal with this.

The term is certainly familiar to internet media users. So, many use cloud-based storage rather than using conventional-based storage. We will provide explanations for those who don’t know what cloud computing is, starting from understanding to how it works.

Understanding cloud computing

Cloud computing is a term from English that means cloud computing. The term “cloud” is a metaphor for the internet. So, the real definition of cloud computing is a process of processing computing power systems through an internet network that connects one computer device to another computer at the same time.

So, cloud computing itself is also included in the technology that makes the internet a center of server for managing user data. By using cloud computing, you don’t need to install an application manually and make it easier to access information via the internet.

The function of cloud computing


In the following, many functions cloud computing has: we summarize the three main functions of using cloud computing to help user activities.

  1. Increase the data storage capacity

By using cloud computing, the storage capacity will be greater than when you use storage on a device such as a flash disk, hard disk, and so on. Cloud technology can store your various information with the help of internet media.

So your information will be stored in internet databases that use big data technology. An example of using cloud-based storage is Google Cloud.

  1. Improve stakeholder performance

The second function, by using cloud-based storage, will make each stakeholder’s performance more productive and optimal where each team or department can be connected to each other at the same time and can save existing resources.

  1. Get regular system updates (up to date)

This third function is an advantage and characteristic of cloud computing. Where, to overcome the various deficiencies that exist and keep up with the development of trends in the era of digital-based technology, the system will continue to periodically update the database.

The update aims to increase security and improve features to provide a better experience for internet users worldwide. Thus, each storage process becomes safer, more effective, and has high credibility.

Those are some of the functions regarding the internet cloud system which is now the number one alternative in data storage or business needs. If you liked this article, please take the time to fill in your comments in the comments column provided below.


In the 1960s, the Department of Defense of the United States, through the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which was also abbreviated as ARPA, pioneered a network system called ARPANET. This ARPANET is its origin before internet technology was formed.

In the 1980s, the internet began to be used by limited circles and carried out its function by connecting various campuses or universities that were popular in the United States.

The standard protocol of TCP / IP itself began to be published to the public in 1982. The existence of domain names also began to be used four years later, in 1984, to be precise. Then, the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was founded and began to be developed in 1986.

NSFNET is what began to replace the role of the ARPANET as a forum for related research in the United States. Several international networks in many countries have finally started to be developed and linked through the NSFNET.

The ARPANET was later revealed in 1990. However, the internet itself has been developing continuously until now. In the past, the only information that could be had via the internet was text-based information. And in 1990, a similar graphical display-based service known as WWW (World Wide Web) began to be developed again by CERN.


In 1993, InterNIC was founded in order to serve domain name registrations from the public. Around 1994, the internet entered our country, Indonesia.

At that time, the internet network in Indonesia was more identified by a unique name, namely Paguyuban Network. Paguyuban Network also means similar to its name where the spirit of kinship or cooperation occurs so intimately among its technology developer members.

This is quite different when compared to the current atmosphere of Internet development in Indonesia, which is, of course, more towards its commercial objectives. But of course, it is not only the negative side that is felt; e-commerce and other commercial companies have increased dramatically and helped build the nation’s economy.

At that time, RMS Ibrahim, Adisoemarta, Suryono, Muhammad Ihsan, Putu, Robby Soebiakto, Firman Siregar, Adi Idrayanto, and Onno Purbo were some of the names of legendary developer figures recorded in the early internet history of Indonesia, around 1992 to 1994 to be precise. Each of these developers has contributed and dedicated their expertise in building the history of IT in Indonesia.

One of the contents that we often find on the internet today is a video that is shared in certain media, especially YouTube. Suitable for sharing daily activities in the form of vlogs, cinematic videos such as short films or trailers, talk shows, even packaged commercials

How has this article helped you in understanding the internet? Please leave a comment, and don’t forget to subscribe to your email to get other interesting articles related to business and website development in today’s digital era.

how cloud computing works

When viewed from the system usage or access rights, cloud computing is divided into four types. The following is an explanation.

how cloud computing works

  1. Public cloud

Public cloud computing is the storage of any data and information on internet media with a service model that uses public access rights. This means you can use every feature and service for free and do not require a fee.

An example of public cloud computing itself is social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, and others. Then, on email-based services are Gmail, Yahoo, and Hotmail. However, the public cloud also has weaknesses, namely a security system that is easily hacked and takes the user’s personal data for sale.

  1. Private cloud

Private cloud is the use of cloud technology for the benefit of an organization or company that is private. Usually, it is used for business needs to make it easier and faster to connect communication between teams.

For its own application, it can only be used by stakeholders in the same company or organization. Therefore, private cloud computing has a better security system than public cloud computing.

  1. Community cloud

A community cloud is a cloud-based storage system that is used for the benefit of a community or institution. Community cloud can be managed internally or using the help of third parties so as to minimize costs incurred and can be borne by both parties.

  1. Hybrid cloud

A hybrid cloud is a combination of private and public cloud computing, where this service is usually applied to an institution. This service is also included in Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Consumer (B2C).

Cloud computing structure

Next, enter the discussion material about what structures are owned by cloud computing.

  1. Computer front end

The front-end computer is a desktop computer that appears on the front page of the interface. Which, in this case, is the side of the client and the cloud computing system. Which will then be adjusted according to the functional requirements of each interface.

  1. Computer back end

A computer back end is a computer to serve the needs of large amounts of data storage, for example, a server computer and a data center. Typically, the computer back end takes care of the performance and high capacity database management needs.

  1. Computer front and back end (Hybrid)

This third structure serves to connect the two computers above. Where it is possible to exchange information and data quickly and accurately, examples of this device are LAN (Local Area Network) and the Internet.

How cloud computing works

Cloud computing technology itself makes the internet a central server in managing data. The system makes it very easy for users to register and enter the application without the need to install it first.

Because it does not require an installation process, the storage is done virtually. So as not to overload memory usage on client computing devices. Then, you can run various commands on the interface display menu, and the application server will then process it.

The following are some of the benefits of cloud computing, including the following.

  1. As a storage medium on the server centrally

The first benefit is being a storage place for various information in the form of documents or data in a systemized and centralized manner. You only need to use one server application, and you don’t need an installation process.

  1. As a data security center

The second benefit is that cloud computing provides much better security features than conventional storage models because the data security center is managed directly by a giant company that has complex big data and resources.

  1. Durable and does not require high costs

The last benefit is that it does not require a large fee because a lot of cloud computing access is free and does not incur additional costs. An example is the use of social media and email management applications.


  • Cloud computing is a data computation processing process with the help of internet networks to store large-scale information needs.
  • Types of cloud computing are divided into four, namely private, public, community, and hybrid cloud.
  • The structure of cloud computing is divided into three main parts: computer back end, front end, and hybrid.

20 million objects around us are connected to each other. The internet of things (IoT) is the technology that is responsible for this. So, have you understood the problem? Besides, through its great development, are there any career opportunities in this field?

The answer is in this article. Let’s listen to everything!

What is IoT?

The internet has certainly become a part of your life. Through it, you can find a variety of new information. Not to mention, this connection also allows you to send information. Do not go far, for example, when chatting with friends.

What if the internet is not only connected via HP or laptop? For example, you connected the internet to a coffee maker? Forbes says the IoT is a concept for doing this. In Indonesian, this term is often called the internet for everything.

Not just a coffee maker, you know. The internet can also be installed for washing machines, lights, to anything you can think of. So, why must all objects be connected? Well, like the internet on your cellphone, all of this will make it easier to exchange messages.

For example, you set an alarm on your clock. The clock is connected to the internet. Incidentally, your coffee maker is also connected to it. Your watch can send a message to the coffee maker what time you wake up.

At that hour, the engine must start and mix your coffee. You don’t need to turn on the coffee machine yourself. All of that runs automatically. That way, your life can become easier.

Its use itself is not only for home appliances, you know. Edureka said, the internet of things can be used in:

  • gadgets, for example a smartwatch
  • health, to collect complete patient information
  • smart city, for example for waste management
  • agriculture, for example the smart greenhouse
  • industry, for example warehouse management

A Brief History of the IoT

Like everything else in the world, the internet for everything did not just appear. Launching Wired, he has a long history. Much of the technology in this world has emerged from science fiction. IoT is one of them. The idea to “live” a home starts from there.

First of all, came the kitchen furniture with automatic functions. For example, a toaster that turns itself off when the bread is cooked. This is of course different from a machine that must be turned off by yourself. However, still, there is no communication process via the internet there.

It just happened in 1990. At that time, John Romkey connected the toaster to his computer. This is the beginning of the emergence of the IoT. However, the term was only introduced by Kevin Ashton in 1999.


Until now, the internet touched more and more things. As of 2020, there are 20 million objects connected to it. Not to mention, the internet of things can be combined with other technologies.

For example, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and others. The combination will give birth to even more sophisticated objects. This bridge between goods certainly makes your life easier. Unfortunately, this is not always positive.

Through the internet of things, you share a lot of information. Key Info said, the amount of this data could make it difficult to maintain its confidentiality. It could be, there are irresponsible people who misuse your personal information. Of course, over time, this issue is always being tackled and trying to solve.

How the IoT Works

In fact, the internet of things works quite complicated. However, you can understand it easier when the elements are disassembled one by one.

The elements and the way they work are:

  • Sensor
    One of the main components of the IoT are sensors. Its job is to collect data from the environment of objects. Usually, the information he is looking for is uncomplicated. Among them are, location, temperature, to date. An example is in the coffee maker earlier. It collects data in the form of time, what time you wake up, so it has to turn on by itself. Sometimes, complex information is also collected by sensors. For example, the patient’s condition in the hospital.
  • Connection
    The censors have got the information. So, what should he do with the data? The answer is, send it. Usually, they take advantage of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or some other connection. This information will go to the big data processing engine.
  • Data processing
    The next stage of IoT work is data processing. In this step, your information will be processed into results. For example, you come home at 6:00 p.m. The automatic light is in charge of monitoring the time and sending it to the processing machine. After that, the data will be assessed, whether the clock shows 6 o’clock in the afternoon. Otherwise, the lights won’t turn on. If so, the opposite will happen to the lamp.
  • User interface (UI)
    You must have received a notification on your cellphone. This user interface form is the final step in the internet of things. For example, suppose your house was broken into by a thief. As it turned out, the security system detected this. The machine will send you a notification.

Innovation in the world of technology continues to be developed in such a way, and even every year, there is always the possibility that new technology will be invented in the world. The greater the development of technology, the easier the role of humans in living life. But behind that, the technology itself is also not immune from bad judgment, which gives many negative impacts.

One of them is the internet, besides making it easier for someone to find information, communicate, or doing other activities such as online gambling in (backlink); The internet also apparently provides information space that is too transparent. This means that all information can be accessed easily, and the information can also be easily developed and manipulated, such as provocative information, hoaxes, and others. That is one example of the negative impact of technological development.

Although it has some bad influences, the development of technology is undeniably more helpful to humans. Even recently, experts have developed a technology that is not so far apart from its role for the internet. The technology is the future of Wi-Fi, named Li-Fi, which is predicted to be up to 100 times faster than Wi-Fi. You can imagine how smooth when you play games like judi bola or casino, you can render the images without buffering and there will be no double transactions when you do transaction like deposit or withdrawal with real money.

What is Li-Fi?

Li-Fi is a wireless technology that functions almost the same as Wi-Fi but is faster than Wi-Fi itself. The development of Li-Fi technology was first discovered in the results of experiments conducted by Oxford University and University College, which this technology will use light media to transfer data quickly, even touted to be up to 100 Gbps per second.

In addition, this technology also does not use conventional radio frequencies like those of Wi-Fi, and Li-Fi itself has been successfully demonstrated on a pair of Casio smartphones at the Consumer Electronics Show, Las Vegas, a few years ago. The name Li-Fi is derived from the abbreviation Light Fidelity.

How Does Li-Fi Work?

Li-Fi can only work if the light sources that exist on each device are connected to each other. The intended light source that can be used is like an LED or a photodetector (Light Sensor). Then when the LED light is on, the sensor light on the other end of the device will detect it and interpret it as the same binary. In essence, Li-Fi can work when the light on each device is paired with or connected to each other. At first glance, the way this technology works is almost similar to Bluetooth, which also has to connect a device to another device so that it can then transfer data.

Apart from being able to transfer data quickly, you can also download 23 DVDs in one second. That means this technology has extraordinary speed, recorded in laboratory tests conducted, Li-Fi itself managed to show speeds of more than 200 Gbps.

Advantages and Weaknesses of Using Li-Fi:

  1. Advantages
    Based on the fact above, of course, Li-Fi has many advantages to make it easy for anyone to access the internet quickly, even in remote areas. Of course, this will be one of the promising digital technological revolutions in the future.
  2. Weakness
    Behind these advantages, Li-Fi also has some shortcomings that are quite a consideration. Because this technology can only be used in a room with bright lights and cannot be used directly in the sun. That’s because sunlight itself will interfere with the artificial light used to transmit the connection. Many shortcomings, even Li-Fi, can not be used through walls and taken to move places, so for this Wi-Fi connection, it still seems necessary. Another formidable challenge is that the Li-Fi connection requires a perfect light source to transmit data optimally.

How does the TCP / IP protocol work?

TCP / IP protocol is used by computers to communicate through computer networks, and computers will process packets and package them into data packets to be sent over a computer network.

How does the TCP IP Protocol work

TCP Step

  1. Data is broken down into small packets – in order to be transmitted through the appropriate media and protocols, each data packet is labeled and the purpose for which the packet is sent.
  2. Packets will pass through the router in the internet network. The router is responsible for delivering and determining the route of the packets sent. In a fairly large network of packets will pass dozens or even hundreds of routers, each router only delivers packets to the nearest router while looking for the right route.
  3. When the packet arrives at its destination, the TCP / IP protocol will work according to the tasks at each division/layer, starting from the lowest layer which translates signals/signals into logical data and is forwarded to the layer above to ensure whether the data packet has been received or not adjusted with the selection of TCP / UDP protocol.If the TCP protocol, if there is a packet of data that is lost, it will ask to be sent again. The data packet will be assembled and arranged as its original form and forwarded to the layer above it to form the original file when it is sent.

What is the difference between IP and IP Address?

Internet Protocol (IP) is layer 2 in the TCP / IP model, while the IP address is the identity/address/identifier used in labeling computer devices on the internet network.

Every computer that is connected to an internet network must have a unique IP address (may not be the same) in order to communicate with other computers on the network.

IP Address is like a home address, which is used by us to receive packets so as not to get lost and used to fill in the original packet address when we send packages.

The goal is that if damaged can be returned to us, and the IP Address is the same as the home address in the real world, where the data packet is sent with the destination IP Address specified.

We usually get an IP address automatically when connecting to a free hotspot if we manage a fairly large network.

IP addresses are grouped, divided and standardized according to their intended use in the internet network so they are not chaotic.

There are also IP addresses divided into two types, namely public and private IPs.

  1. Public IP is an IP that can be accessed directly from the global internet network
  2. A private IP address is an IP address that is used in a local / intranet / private network that cannot be directly accessed through the internet.


TCP / IP is a computer communication standard protocol that is still used today, computers communicate by packaging data according to TCP / IP protocol rules and then sending it over a computer network.

When you learn to hack, you must know the actual process when computers exchange data / communicate through LAN or internet networks.

Service Provider

What is TCP / IP?

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP) standard protocol used in the process of exchanging data between computers (communication) in the internet network.

TCP / IP regulates the standard of how data can be sent and received between computers using existing networks, the internet.

What is the TCP / IP Function?

TCP / IP is just a rule and concept of how to process data from a computer that will be sent or received by a computer using the internet network.

Before data is sent/received, it must go through several stages and processes in hardware/software.

So that your computer can connect to the internet, the computer must be physically connected to a computer network using either cable or non-cable (wireless).

It’s not enough to connect your computer to be given an IP Address so that computers can communicate with each other with other devices on the local network or the internet.

How Do Computers Communicate?

Computers can communicate with each other using a local network or the internet if the computer follows the standard communication protocol established, in this case, TCP / IP, which is used as a standard data exchange protocol in the global internet network.

Communication in the computer world is defined as the process of downloading (sending) and uploading (sending) data packets.

What is a Data Package?

Network Package or Data Package is a packaging format used to describe and package data to be sent over a computer network.

The format provides a simple way so that packages sent can be sent without friction, are easily broken and reunited, and easy to manage.

This data packet format can be used to send all types of data through a computer network.

How is Computer Data Packages Sent?

Like a package in the real world where the package must be labeled and processed by each section/division/layer so that the package can arrive at its destination safely and not stray.

If the packet is of large size then it needs to be broken to fit the size of the road to be passed, each fraction must be labeled so that later it is easy to put together again, the TCP / IP protocol is designed with the exact purpose as above.

TCP IP Protocol Layer

TCP / IP is a protocol suite (Many parts) that work with their respective duties and responsibilities as a single unit.

What is Protocol?

The Protocol here is defined as the duties, responsibilities, and procedures that must be carried out so that the computers can communicate with each other.

TCP / IP will be divided into several divisions/sections/layers / to carry out the process and its specific task to process data that will be sent and received by the computer through wired or non-wired (Wireless) media.

How Many Layers of the TCP / IP Protocol?

TCP / IP is divided into several divisions/layers/modules with their respective duties and responsibilities to process the data received / to be sent.


In the OSI standard, it is divided with detail into seven sub-layers, as shown below.

Based on TCP / IP standards are divided into four main layers, namely: Application Layer, Transport Layer, Internet Layer / Network layer, Network interface Layer / physical layer.

  1. Application Layer
    This is the top layer/division/section in the TCP / IP system. This section contains the applications or processes that we use every day to work and play computers. At this layer, the appropriate Protocol will be chosen to send and receive data, for example, for browsing and downloading web browser applications will choose the HTTP protocol.To upload files to the server, the FTP application will choose the FTP protocol to send the file. The application will choose the type of Protocol for sending and receiving data. After the application determines the Protocol to be used, the application will submit the next process to the layer/division below, which is the transport layer to begin the process of sending data.
  2. Transport Layer / Host to Host
    This division has the duty to receive data from the layer above it, the application layer, and determine the type of Protocol that will be used for data transmission, two commonly used protocols are UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) TCP- is used to send data with priority data integrity, where data is sent and received at the same time or guaranteed 100% of the fraction of data sent will be completely intact.If only 1bit of data is lost, the file will be corrupted and useless. Such as when sending an application file, the TCP protocol is chosen to ensure the file is not corrupt when sent over the internet. TCP protocol works rather slowly because it has to work extra to ensure data has been sent and received intact. UDP-this Protocol ignores the integrity of the data sent and received, and its job is only to send data regardless of whether the data is received intact or not.This Protocol is very fast in sending data because it is like a person from throwing goods without caring about goods until / not. The use of this Protocol is specifically for transferring data/information with the target data presented in real-time and without delay.For example, online games, streaming (radio streaming/video streaming), types of video/audio / online games will only lag / glitch, and there are no corrupt terms. Because, indeed, what is needed in real-time.At this layer, the connection between 2 computers is formed virtually and the process of sending and receiving data. (Like we send a packet to someone using a sending service like JNE)
  3. Network Layer / Internetwork Layer
    layer/division, which we often call the internet layer, because the packet is sent to the destination based on the IP Address installed on each computer connected to the network.On this layer, extensive data coming from the layer above it will be broken down and adjusted in size according to the media to be passed.Large data that has been broken down into smaller data packages/frames will be wrapped (encapsulated) and labeled the origin and destination of the packet, this layer/division is responsible for routing (determining the destination and path) of the packet to be sent.
  4. Network Interface Layer
    Hardware is used to transmit data in the form of signals, this layer hardware and drivers work to convert logical data into signals that are transmitted through copper cable / optical fiber media or convert them into radio signals wirelessly.


Internet Services

Maybe some of us have never heard of the term internet protocol / IP, or have heard of it but don’t understand its meaning. For people working in the world of information technology and computers, this term is certainly familiar. However, ordinary people must be wondering what IP and its benefits are. Next, we will discuss in detail about IP:

Understanding Internet Protocol

Internet protocol or abbreviated as IP is a basic rule used to coordinate the connection between computers, communication, and data transfer between two or more computer points. With the presence of IP, computers can communicate and exchange information with one another. The types of IPs, namely Proxy, DNS, IP Address, and others, are internet protocols as well.

internet protocol works

Various protocols

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
TCP is a group of protocols that exist on a computer network and functions to exchange data between computers. The protocol cannot stand alone because it is basically a collection of protocols (protocol suite). This protocol is a standard protocol on the internet network that connects several computers that have different operating system machines.

Domain Name System (DNS)

DNS is a data distribution system that aims to find the name of a computer on a network and uses TCP/IP. Usually used in applications that are connected to the internet, such as web browsers or email. The strength of this DNS is that it is easy, consistent, and simple because the hostname does not change and is enough for one domain in search.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

HTTP is an application layer network protocol used for information systems using hypermedia. Its use focuses on the resources connected to the link. This protocol is used on www (world wide web). Its job is to translate a message so that it can be formatted and sent from the server to the client and respond back.


HTTPS is the same protocol as HTTP, but HTTPS has a higher level of security than HTTP, as the name suggests Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. This communication protocol protects the integrity and confidentiality of user data between the computer and the site. So, it helps us adopt HTTPS to protect user connections to the site.


FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

The term FTP is in the application layer and is a standard distribution of computer files between machines in an internetwork. FTP only uses usernames and passwords that are sent in a form that is not easy to read. Registered users can access and download the files you want, while users who are not registered can access via email.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

tcp vs udp

UDP is a TCP/IP transport layer protocol that supports not reliable communication and does not use connections between hosts on TCP/IP networks. UDP functions to send messages to an application layer protocol or certain processes in a host on a network that uses TCP/IP.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

ICMP is used equipment that is connected through the internet for network analysis. The famous uses of ICMP are ping and traceroute. ICMP also functions to provide an error message if a requested service is not available, or if the destination computer or router cannot be contacted.

SSH (Secure Shell)

SSH is a network protocol that functions as a medium that bridges data exchange remotely more safely, between two or more computers, such as receiving and sending files. Because it has the advantage of being able to make communication security more secure, its credibility is more recognized.

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)

This protocol bears the title as a protocol with high-level encryption capabilities. In addition to being competent in terms of website security, it is also able to provide extra security for applications that require end-to-end network encryption.

POP3 (Post Controller)

This one internet protocol focuses on the email field. This protocol is used to retrieve email from the email server because it was designed from an email system that requires an email server that holds the email temporarily to the recipient.

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

IMAP is a very basic protocol in accessing and retrieving emails from the server. This protocol makes it easy for users to select, search, and delete email messages. It can be said that IMAP has a performance that is superior to POP (Post Office Protocol) because it makes it easy for users to retrieve and download all messages without exception.

Telnet (Telecommunication network)

Telnet is a network protocol in an internet connection or Local Area Network (LAN). Telnet was the first internet standard that developed in 1969. But in practice, many have shortcomings and risks to the security system.

Wow, there are many kinds of IPs that we can learn. Some may be familiar to our ears, but some are also unknown before. Hopefully, this article can help those of you who are involved in the world of technology.

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