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What is TCP / IP?

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP) standard protocol used in the process of exchanging data between computers (communication) in the internet network.

TCP / IP regulates the standard of how data can be sent and received between computers using existing networks, the internet.

What is the TCP / IP Function?

TCP / IP is just a rule and concept of how to process data from a computer that will be sent or received by a computer using the internet network.

Before data is sent/received, it must go through several stages and processes in hardware/software.

So that your computer can connect to the internet, the computer must be physically connected to a computer network using either cable or non-cable (wireless).

It’s not enough to connect your computer to be given an IP Address so that computers can communicate with each other with other devices on the local network or the internet.

How Do Computers Communicate?

Computers can communicate with each other using a local network or the internet if the computer follows the standard communication protocol established, in this case, TCP / IP, which is used as a standard data exchange protocol in the global internet network.

Communication in the computer world is defined as the process of downloading (sending) and uploading (sending) data packets.

What is a Data Package?

Network Package or Data Package is a packaging format used to describe and package data to be sent over a computer network.

The format provides a simple way so that packages sent can be sent without friction, are easily broken and reunited, and easy to manage.

This data packet format can be used to send all types of data through a computer network.

How is Computer Data Packages Sent?

Like a package in the real world where the package must be labeled and processed by each section/division/layer so that the package can arrive at its destination safely and not stray.

If the packet is of large size then it needs to be broken to fit the size of the road to be passed, each fraction must be labeled so that later it is easy to put together again, the TCP / IP protocol is designed with the exact purpose as above.

TCP IP Protocol Layer

TCP / IP is a protocol suite (Many parts) that work with their respective duties and responsibilities as a single unit.

What is Protocol?

The Protocol here is defined as the duties, responsibilities, and procedures that must be carried out so that the computers can communicate with each other.

TCP / IP will be divided into several divisions/sections/layers / to carry out the process and its specific task to process data that will be sent and received by the computer through wired or non-wired (Wireless) media.

How Many Layers of the TCP / IP Protocol?

TCP / IP is divided into several divisions/layers/modules with their respective duties and responsibilities to process the data received / to be sent.


In the OSI standard, it is divided with detail into seven sub-layers, as shown below.

Based on TCP / IP standards are divided into four main layers, namely: Application Layer, Transport Layer, Internet Layer / Network layer, Network interface Layer / physical layer.

  1. Application Layer
    This is the top layer/division/section in the TCP / IP system. This section contains the applications or processes that we use every day to work and play computers. At this layer, the appropriate Protocol will be chosen to send and receive data, for example, for browsing and downloading web browser applications will choose the HTTP protocol.To upload files to the server, the FTP application will choose the FTP protocol to send the file. The application will choose the type of Protocol for sending and receiving data. After the application determines the Protocol to be used, the application will submit the next process to the layer/division below, which is the transport layer to begin the process of sending data.
  2. Transport Layer / Host to Host
    This division has the duty to receive data from the layer above it, the application layer, and determine the type of Protocol that will be used for data transmission, two commonly used protocols are UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) TCP- is used to send data with priority data integrity, where data is sent and received at the same time or guaranteed 100% of the fraction of data sent will be completely intact.If only 1bit of data is lost, the file will be corrupted and useless. Such as when sending an application file, the TCP protocol is chosen to ensure the file is not corrupt when sent over the internet. TCP protocol works rather slowly because it has to work extra to ensure data has been sent and received intact. UDP-this Protocol ignores the integrity of the data sent and received, and its job is only to send data regardless of whether the data is received intact or not.This Protocol is very fast in sending data because it is like a person from throwing goods without caring about goods until / not. The use of this Protocol is specifically for transferring data/information with the target data presented in real-time and without delay.For example, online games, streaming (radio streaming/video streaming), types of video/audio / online games will only lag / glitch, and there are no corrupt terms. Because, indeed, what is needed in real-time.At this layer, the connection between 2 computers is formed virtually and the process of sending and receiving data. (Like we send a packet to someone using a sending service like JNE)
  3. Network Layer / Internetwork Layer
    layer/division, which we often call the internet layer, because the packet is sent to the destination based on the IP Address installed on each computer connected to the network.On this layer, extensive data coming from the layer above it will be broken down and adjusted in size according to the media to be passed.Large data that has been broken down into smaller data packages/frames will be wrapped (encapsulated) and labeled the origin and destination of the packet, this layer/division is responsible for routing (determining the destination and path) of the packet to be sent.
  4. Network Interface Layer
    Hardware is used to transmit data in the form of signals, this layer hardware and drivers work to convert logical data into signals that are transmitted through copper cable / optical fiber media or convert them into radio signals wirelessly.


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